India is the largest and one of the most important democratic country on earth. It is the seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous country in the world.

Politics in India take place within the framework of its constitution and rule of law. A government is run by the elected representatives of the common people. Hence, public opinion and mandate are the essence of India’s democracy.

Indian democracy and politics is characterized by peaceful coexistence of different ideas and ideals. There is healthy cooperation and competition among existing political parties. But, we can deny unnecessary aggression and tension in Indian politics. Nepotism and favoritism are still relevant and persist in political parties.

As we are celebrating the 70 years of Indian Independence, let us have a short flashback over all these years and find out political development in India.

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Caption: Mahatma Gandhi

Source: quotesideas.com

Timeline of India after Independence

1947

August 15 – A new beginning of India as we got freedom from the British Colonial rule. Pandit Jawaharalal Nehru becomes the first Prime Minister of India.

1948

January 30 – Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.

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Caption: Jawaharlal Nehru’s Iconic Independence Day Speech

Source: www.youthconnect.in

1949

November 26 – Progmulation of Constitution of India.

1950

January 25 – Establishment of Election Commission.

January 26 – The Constitution comes into practice making India a republic.

January 26 – Dr. Rajendra Prasad becomes first President of India.

1952

The first general election is held in India. The Indian National Congress led by Nehru came into power.

April 17 – Starts of membership of the first Lok Sabha.

December – First five-year plan is presented in the Parliament by Nehru.

1956

Reorganization of the Indian States on a linguistic basis and several new states were created.

1961

December 19 – Conquer of the Portuguese territories of Goa, Daman, and Diu.

1962

May 13 – Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan becomes President of India

October 20 – Chinese army invades India, but withdraws troops and orders ceasefire the next day.

1964

May 27 – PM Nehru dies and Gulzarilal Nanda takes the charge as PM.

June 9 – Lal Bahadur Shastri becomes PM of India.

1965

January 26 – Hindi becomes the official language of India.

August 5 – War begins with Pakistan.

September 6-22 – A full-scale war between India and Pakistan, which ends after the intervention of UN Security Council

1966

January 3 – PM of India and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan sign a Soviet-mediated peace pact in Tashkent.

January 11 – Untimely demise of Lal Bahadur Shastri and Gulzarila Nanda takes charge as PM.

January 24 – Indira Gandhi becomes the first lady PM of India.

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Caption: The first lady Prime Minister Indira Gandhi shakes hands with Pakistan’s President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Source: 162.243.3.155

1967

May 13 – Zakir Husain becomes President of India

1969

Splits of Indian National Congress, one lead by Indira Gandhi and another by Morarji Desai.

1971

December 3-17 – Second major war between India and Pakistan over East Pakistan, which ends after 90,000 Pakistani troops surrender. The new nation of Bangladesh is created.

1974

Nuclear tests at Pokhran

August 24 – Fakhruddin Ali becomes President of Inida.

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Caption: Emergency in India (1975-1977)

Source: www.confluence.mobi

1975

April 19 – Launch of Aryabhatta, the first Indian satellite

May 26 – Sikkim becomes 22nd Indian State.

June 26 – Emergency is declared by Indira Gandhi during which the press is censored and more than one lakh are jailed.

1977

March 24 – Morarji Desai came into power, the first non-Congress government

Neelam Sanjiva becomes President of India

1979

July 28 – Choudhary Charan Singh becomes new PM of India

1980

Indira Gandhi came back in power and Sanjay Gandhi died in a plane crash

January 14 – Indira Gandhi again becomes PM of India

1983

Giani Zail Singh is elected as new President.

1984

June – Operation Blue Star. More than 12,000 people are killed in the operation.

October 31 – Indira Gandhi is assassinated by Sikh bodyguards in retaliation of Operation Blue Star. Her sons Rajiv Gandhi takes over as PM. Around 2,200 Sikhs are killed across India, in aggression and violence done by her political party.

December – Bhopal gas tragedy. More than 6,500 people lost their life and more than 20,000 are injured.

1985

June 23 – Air India Flight 182 was blown up by Sikh extremist.

Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Prevention Act.

1986

April 1 – Incorpotarion of VSNL under the Indian Companies Act, 1956.

1987

July 25 – Ramaswamy Vankataraman becomes President of India.

1989

December 2 – V.P. Sings becomes the PM of India.

1990

January – Insurgency in Kashmir and Central Government impose direct rule.

November 10 – Chandra Shekhar is appointed as new PM of India.

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Caption: PM P.V. Narshima Rao and Finance Minister Manmohan Singh initiate reform of Indian economy

Source: i.ytimg.com

1991

July 25 – Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi by a Tamil suicide bomber.

July 21 – P.V. Narshima Rao becomes PM.

Economic liberalization. Beginning of the modern Indian economy.

1992

July 25 – Shankar Dayal Sharma is elected as President.

December 6 – Demolition of the Babri Masjid. More than 3,000 people die after the breakout of communal riots.

Establishment of SEBI, stock exchange regulator.

1993

March 12 – Bombay bombings. More than 260 people lost their lives.

1996

May 16 – Atal Bihary Vajpayee is sworn in as PM. But, he fails to gather a parliamentary majority and resigns on May 28.

June 1 – H.D. Deva Gowda becomes the new PM of India. 

1997

April 21 – I.K. Gujral becomes the new Prime Minister.

July 25 – K. R. Narayanan takes charge as President of India.

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Caption: Pokhran 2 Nuclear Tests under the leadership of Atal Bihary Vajpayee.

Source: i.ytimg.com

1998

March 19 – Atal Bihary Vajpayee becomes the PM of India.

May 11 – Pokhran 2 under the leadership of Atal Bihary Vajpayee.

Launch of National Highway Development project.

1999

February 20 – Vajpayee makes a goodwill visit to Pakistan and the two countries agree to work harder on their Kashmir dispute.

April 11 – Test of Agni ballistic missile.

December 24 – Hijack of Indian Airlines flight 814.

2001

July 17 – Agra Summit between India and Pakistan. It fails to make any progress on the Kashmir issue and ends without agreement.

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Caption: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, 11th President of India

Source: indiannerve.com

2002

February 27 to May, 2000 –  Gujarat Riots. 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus lost their lives.

May 21 – Assassination of Kashmiri separatist leader Abdul Ghani Lone. On the same day Vajpayee begins a five-day visit to Kashmir.

July 25 – Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam becomes the 11th President of India.

2003

August 25 – 54 killed in two bomb blast in Mumbai.

2004

May 20 – Dr. Manmohan Singh sworn in as the new PM of India.

2006

July 11 – Mumbai train bombings. Seven bomb blast over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai killed 209 people.

2007

July 25 – Pratibha Patil becomes the 12th and first lady President of India.

July 26 – A series of 21 bomb blasts in Ahmedabad killed 56 innocent people.

2008

October 1 – India-United States Civil Nuclear Agreement, which ends a three-decade ban on US nuclear trade with Delhi.

November 26 to 29 – Mumbai Attacks takes lives of 166 people.

2009

India and Russia sign civil nuclear agreement worth around $700 million, according to which Moscow will supply uranium to Delhi.

2010

May 3 – Ajmal Amir Qasab, a sole surviving gunman of the 2008 Mumbai attacks, is convicted of murder, waging war on India and possessing explosives.

September 30 – Ayodhya ruling. Allahabad High Court rules that the disputed holy site of Ayodhya should be divided between Hindus and Muslims.

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Caption: 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement

Source: msnbcmedia.msn.com

2011

Indian anti-corruption movement lead by prominent social activist Anna Hazare.

2012

July 25 – Pranab Mukherjee becomes 13th President of India.

November 21 – 2008 Mumbai attack gunman Ajmal Amir Qasab is executed.

December 16 – Delhi gang rape awakes the whole nation and led to massive protests across India and demand of new laws against rape.

2013

September 13 – Verdict on 2012 Delhi gang rape. Four men convicted of gang-rap and murder of 23-year old receive a death sentence.

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Caption: Narendra Modi takes oath as the Prime Minister of India

Source: i.ytimg.com

2014

May 26 – Narendra Modi becomes 14th Prime Minister of India.

September 18 – India and China sign 12 agreements, including one on five years economic and trade development plan.

2015

February 14 – Aam Aadmi Party wins a stunning victory in the Delhi state election and Arvind Kejriwal becomes Chief Minister of Delhi.

June 6 – Rectification of India-Bangladesh enclaves. A historic deal is sign allowing more than 50,000 people living in border enclaves to choose which of the countries they live in.

September 28 – India launches its first space laboratory Astrosat.

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Caption: ISRO launches record 20 satellites

Source: i.ytimg.com

2016

June 22 – ISRO sets record with 20 satellites launched at once.

September 2 – Millions of workers in India are on a day-long strike demanding higher wages and to protest against the government’s economic policies and reforms.

September 18 – Uri Attack. 19 Indian soldiers lost their lives. In September 29, India carried out surgical strike in Pakistan occupied Kashmir, inflicting heavy casualties on terrorists and ‘those protecting them.’

November 8 – Government of India announced the demonetisation of all INR 500 and INR 1,000 banknotes.

2017

January 25 – India sings a wide-ranging cooperation agreement with the UAE, with a series of deals on energy, trade and maritime affairs.

March 26 – Yogi Adityanath becomes the Chief Minister of Utter Pradesh.

June 9 – India becomes a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation along with Pakistan.

June 16 – Gorkhaland Agitations in Darjeeling.

July 1 – Goods and Service Tax, the India’s biggest tax reform in 70 years of Independence.

July 25 – Ram Nath Kovind becomes the 14th President of India.

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Caption: Future of India

Source: www.bilkulonline.com

Jai Hind!

Sources: www.bbc.com, time.com, www.thehindu.com, timesofindia.indiatimes.com, and several other newspapers and magazines.